Academic Geriatric Resource Center
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AT A GLANCE

Glossary

0. Introduction
1. Demography And Epidemiology
1.1 The Changing Face of Aging: Objectives
1.2 Local and Regional Variations Among Older Adults in the United States
1.3 Implications of an Aging Society for Health Care Needs and Resources
1.4 Common Chronic Conditions Associated with Advanced Age
1.5 Post Test
2. Biology and Physiology of Aging
2.1 Introduction and Background
2.2 Theories of Aging
2.3 Physiological Changes with Aging
2.3.1 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hyperthermia
2.3.2 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hypothermia
2.3.3 Vulnerability of Older Adults to Hypothermia
2.3.4 Clinical Importance of Vulnerability to Hypothermia
2.3.5 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Other Examples and Clinical Implications
2.3.6 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in Organ Systems
2.3.7 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Renal System
2.3.8 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in Renal System
2.3.9 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.10 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.11 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.12 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.13 Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System
2.3.14 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (I)
2.3.15 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (II)
2.3.16 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
2.3.17 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (I)
2.3.18 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (II)
2.3.19 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.20 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.21 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (I)
2.3.22 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (II)
2.3.23 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System
2.3.24 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System
2.3.25 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (I)
2.3.26 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (II)
2.3.27 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (I)
2.3.28 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (II)
2.3.29 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System
2.3.30 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems
2.3.31 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (I)
2.3.32 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (II)
2.3.33 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.3.34 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.4 Pharmacologic Considerations
2.5 Post Test
3. Socio-cultural And Psychologicial…
3.1 Module Objectives
3.2 Social Theories of Aging
3.3 Psychological Development In Late Life
3.4 Ethno-Cultural Issues And Age-Stratified Societies
3.5 Late-Life Transitions
3.6 Dependent Elders: Special Concerns
3.7 Cultural Views of Death
3.8 References
3.9 Post Test
4. Assessment Of The Geriatric…
4.1 Module Objectives
4.2 Domains of Assessment: Functional Assessment
4.2.1 How to Use Information from a Functional Assessment
4.2.2 Vision Impairment
4.2.3 Hearing Impairment (I)
4.2.4 Hearing Impairment (II)
4.2.5 Oral and Dental Health
4.2.6 Introduction to Oral Health Assessment
4.2.7 Oral Health Assessment
4.2.8 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (I)
4.2.9 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (II)
4.2.10 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Care of Dentures
4.2.11 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Dental Decay
4.2.12 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Periodontal Disease
4.2.13 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Candidiasis Infection
4.2.14 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Leukoplakia and the Risk for Oral Cancer
4.2.15 Guidelines for a Dental Referral
4.2.16 Falls and Gait Assessment
4.2.17 Assessing for Falls
4.2.18 Techniques for Gait Assessment
4.2.19 Gait Assessments and Falls Interventions
4.2.20 Risk Factors for Falls and Targeted Interventions
4.2.21 Modification of Risk Factors: Ability to Get Up After a Fall
4.2.22 Modification of Risk Factors: Fracture Risk
4.2.23 Modification of Risk Factors: Anticoagulation
4.2.24 Incontinence
4.2.25 Skin Breakdown: Pressure Ulcers
4.2.26 Cognition/Dementia
4.2.27 Benefits of Early Detection of Dementia
4.2.28 Screening Techniques for Dementia
4.2.29 Decision-Making about Dementia Screening
4.2.30 Nutrition
4.2.31 Alcohol Use and Alcoholism
4.2.32 Medication and Complementary Therapies
4.2.33 Case Example: Mr. Singh
4.2.34 Mr. Singh--Use of Herbal Medicines
4.2.35 Mr. Singh--Possible Interventions
4.2.36 Mr. Singh--Concerns about Marathon Running at 92?
4.2.37 Mr. Singh--Considerations for Patient/Family Well-Being
4.2.38 Assessing for Polypharmacy (I)
4.2.39 Assessing for Polypharmacy (II)
4.3 Domains Of Assessment: Psychosocial Health And Functioning
4.4 Special Considerations In Assessment
4.5 Post Test
5. Health Care Policies
5.1 Module Objectives
5.2 The Policy-Making Process
5.3 Financing Health & Long Term Care
5.4 Quality Of Care Issues In Long Term Care
5.5 Need And Access Across The Spectrum Of Care
5.6 References
5.7 Post Test
6. Exploring Age-Related Body…
6.1 Cardiovascular System
6.2 Endocrine System
6.3 Immune System
6.4 Musculo-Skeletal System
6.5 Neurological System
6.6 Renal System
6.7 Post Test

Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes

6.5: Neurological System



6.5.3: Components of the Nervous System

The nervous system is composed of both central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral components, with the latter having both somatic and autonomic (parasympathetic and sympathetic) subdivisions.

When we consider the central nervous system, its major purpose is to receive, process/interpret, and send out information. To accomplish these goals, the brain itself is composed of inter-related but specialized areas of function that are carefully coordinated through a network of connections.

primary somatic

The specialization and localization of specific activities in the brain are important when we consider the underlying reason for certain behavioral patterns in dementing processes as well as when we consider alterations in neuromuscular function when select areas are impacted by age. For example, the primary motor cortex along with several sub-cortical nuclei and the cerebellar purkinje cells are involved in motor function. Sjobeck and his colleagues (1999) reported that cell loss occurred with age in the cerebellar purkinje cells and that this could be related to the altered function and stability that is often seen in late life. While these data need to be replicated, they implicate localized cell loss as a factor in altered functional status and risk of falls.

In addition, fronto-temporal lobe dementia is associated with greater loss of inhibition and thus more behavioral and social relationship problems than usually seen in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease, a condition that specifically affects other areas of the brain.

The key is that because of these specialized areas that interrelate, interruptions that occur in any part can disrupt certain functions or behaviors, even if the deficit is relatively minor.


Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes
6.5.2 The Nervous System
6.5.4 The Neuron