Academic Geriatric Resource Center
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AT A GLANCE

Glossary

0. Introduction
1. Demography And Epidemiology
1.1 The Changing Face of Aging: Objectives
1.2 Local and Regional Variations Among Older Adults in the United States
1.3 Implications of an Aging Society for Health Care Needs and Resources
1.4 Common Chronic Conditions Associated with Advanced Age
1.5 Post Test
2. Biology and Physiology of Aging
2.1 Introduction and Background
2.2 Theories of Aging
2.3 Physiological Changes with Aging
2.3.1 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hyperthermia
2.3.2 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hypothermia
2.3.3 Vulnerability of Older Adults to Hypothermia
2.3.4 Clinical Importance of Vulnerability to Hypothermia
2.3.5 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Other Examples and Clinical Implications
2.3.6 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in Organ Systems
2.3.7 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Renal System
2.3.8 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in Renal System
2.3.9 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.10 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.11 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.12 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.13 Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System
2.3.14 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (I)
2.3.15 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (II)
2.3.16 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
2.3.17 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (I)
2.3.18 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (II)
2.3.19 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.20 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.21 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (I)
2.3.22 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (II)
2.3.23 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System
2.3.24 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System
2.3.25 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (I)
2.3.26 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (II)
2.3.27 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (I)
2.3.28 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (II)
2.3.29 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System
2.3.30 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems
2.3.31 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (I)
2.3.32 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (II)
2.3.33 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.3.34 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.4 Pharmacologic Considerations
2.5 Post Test
3. Socio-cultural And Psychologicial…
3.1 Module Objectives
3.2 Social Theories of Aging
3.3 Psychological Development In Late Life
3.4 Ethno-Cultural Issues And Age-Stratified Societies
3.5 Late-Life Transitions
3.6 Dependent Elders: Special Concerns
3.7 Cultural Views of Death
3.8 References
3.9 Post Test
4. Assessment Of The Geriatric…
4.1 Module Objectives
4.2 Domains of Assessment: Functional Assessment
4.2.1 How to Use Information from a Functional Assessment
4.2.2 Vision Impairment
4.2.3 Hearing Impairment (I)
4.2.4 Hearing Impairment (II)
4.2.5 Oral and Dental Health
4.2.6 Introduction to Oral Health Assessment
4.2.7 Oral Health Assessment
4.2.8 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (I)
4.2.9 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (II)
4.2.10 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Care of Dentures
4.2.11 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Dental Decay
4.2.12 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Periodontal Disease
4.2.13 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Candidiasis Infection
4.2.14 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Leukoplakia and the Risk for Oral Cancer
4.2.15 Guidelines for a Dental Referral
4.2.16 Falls and Gait Assessment
4.2.17 Assessing for Falls
4.2.18 Techniques for Gait Assessment
4.2.19 Gait Assessments and Falls Interventions
4.2.20 Risk Factors for Falls and Targeted Interventions
4.2.21 Modification of Risk Factors: Ability to Get Up After a Fall
4.2.22 Modification of Risk Factors: Fracture Risk
4.2.23 Modification of Risk Factors: Anticoagulation
4.2.24 Incontinence
4.2.25 Skin Breakdown: Pressure Ulcers
4.2.26 Cognition/Dementia
4.2.27 Benefits of Early Detection of Dementia
4.2.28 Screening Techniques for Dementia
4.2.29 Decision-Making about Dementia Screening
4.2.30 Nutrition
4.2.31 Alcohol Use and Alcoholism
4.2.32 Medication and Complementary Therapies
4.2.33 Case Example: Mr. Singh
4.2.34 Mr. Singh--Use of Herbal Medicines
4.2.35 Mr. Singh--Possible Interventions
4.2.36 Mr. Singh--Concerns about Marathon Running at 92?
4.2.37 Mr. Singh--Considerations for Patient/Family Well-Being
4.2.38 Assessing for Polypharmacy (I)
4.2.39 Assessing for Polypharmacy (II)
4.3 Domains Of Assessment: Psychosocial Health And Functioning
4.4 Special Considerations In Assessment
4.5 Post Test
5. Health Care Policies
5.1 Module Objectives
5.2 The Policy-Making Process
5.3 Financing Health & Long Term Care
5.4 Quality Of Care Issues In Long Term Care
5.5 Need And Access Across The Spectrum Of Care
5.6 References
5.7 Post Test
6. Exploring Age-Related Body…
6.1 Cardiovascular System
6.2 Endocrine System
6.3 Immune System
6.4 Musculo-Skeletal System
6.5 Neurological System
6.6 Renal System
6.7 Post Test

Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes

6.5: Neurological System



6.5.29: References

Reeves, S., Bench, C., & Howard, R. (2002). Ageing and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 17: 359-370.

Timiras, P. (1994). Physiological basis of aging and geriatrics, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Carroll, E.W. & Curtis, R.L. (2002). Organization and control of neural function. In C.M. Porth, Pathophysiology: Concepts of altered health status (pp.1043-1089), Lippincott Williams & Wilsins, Philadelphia.

Mattson, M.P. (1999). Cellular and neurochemical aspects of aging human brain. In W.R. Hazzard, J.P. Blass, W.H. Ettinger, J.B. Halter, & J.G. Ouslander (eds). Principles of geriatric medicine and gerontology, 5th ed. (pp. 1193-1208), McGraw-Hill, New York.

Meyer, J.S., Terayama, Y. & Takashima, S. (1993). Cerebral circulation in the elderly. Cerebrovascular and Brain Metabolism Reviews. 5: 122-146.

Ashman, T.A., Mohs, R.C., & Harvey, P.D. (1999). Cognition and aging. In W.R. Hazzard, J.P. Blass, W.H. Ettinger, J.B. Halter, & J.G. Ouslander (eds). Principles of geriatric medicine and gerontology, 5th ed. (pp. 1219-1228), McGraw-Hill, New York.

Poon, L.W. (1985). Differences in human memory with aging: nature, causes, and clinical implications. In J.E. Birren and K.W. Schaie (eds) Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 427-462), New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

MacKay,Ý D.G. & Abrams, L. (1996). Language, memory, and aging: Distributed deficits and the structure of new versus old connections. In J.E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (eds). Handbook of the psychology of aging, 4th ed. (pp. 251-265), Academic Press, San Diego.

Gabrieli, J.D.E. (1998). Cognitive neuroscience of human memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 87-115.

Braak, E, Griffing, K, Arai, K., Bohl, J., Bratzke, Hl, & Braak, H. (1999). Neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease: What is new since A. Alzheimer? European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 249 (suppl): 3 III/4-III/22.

Reisberg, B., Franssen, E.H., Hasan, S.M., Monteiro, I., Boksay, Il, Souren, L.E.M., Kenowsky, S., Auer, S.R., Elahi, S., & Kluger, A. (1999). Retrogenesis: Clinical, physiologic, and pathologic mechanisms in brain aging, Alzheimer’s and other dementing processes. European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 249 (suppl): 3 III/28-III/36.

Halliwell, B. (2001). Role of free radicals in the neurodegenerative diseases. Drugs and Aging, 18(9): 685-716.

Durany, N., Munch, G., Michel, T., & Riederer, P. (1999). Investigations on oxidative stress and therapeutic implications in dementia. European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 249 (suppl): 3 III/68-III/73.

Gibson, G.E. & Peterson, C. (1987). Calcium and the aging nervous system. Neurobiology of Aging, 8, 329-343.

Haas, C. & Baumeister, R. (1999) The biological and pathological function of presenilin proteins—simple cell systems and a worm in Alzheimer’s disease research. European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 249 (suppl): 3 III/23-III/27.

Peterson, R.C., Doody, R., Kurz, A., Mohs, R.C., Morris, J.C., Rabins, P.V., et al., (2001) Current concepts in mild cognitive impairment. Archives of Neurology, 58: 1985-1992.


Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes
6.5.28 Summary
6.6 Renal System