Academic Geriatric Resource Center
Increase Font Size

AT A GLANCE

Glossary

0. Introduction
1. Demography And Epidemiology
1.1 The Changing Face of Aging: Objectives
1.2 Local and Regional Variations Among Older Adults in the United States
1.3 Implications of an Aging Society for Health Care Needs and Resources
1.4 Common Chronic Conditions Associated with Advanced Age
1.5 Post Test
2. Biology and Physiology of Aging
2.1 Introduction and Background
2.2 Theories of Aging
2.3 Physiological Changes with Aging
2.3.1 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hyperthermia
2.3.2 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hypothermia
2.3.3 Vulnerability of Older Adults to Hypothermia
2.3.4 Clinical Importance of Vulnerability to Hypothermia
2.3.5 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Other Examples and Clinical Implications
2.3.6 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in Organ Systems
2.3.7 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Renal System
2.3.8 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in Renal System
2.3.9 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.10 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.11 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.12 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.13 Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System
2.3.14 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (I)
2.3.15 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (II)
2.3.16 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
2.3.17 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (I)
2.3.18 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (II)
2.3.19 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.20 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.21 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (I)
2.3.22 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (II)
2.3.23 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System
2.3.24 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System
2.3.25 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (I)
2.3.26 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (II)
2.3.27 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (I)
2.3.28 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (II)
2.3.29 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System
2.3.30 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems
2.3.31 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (I)
2.3.32 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (II)
2.3.33 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.3.34 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.4 Pharmacologic Considerations
2.5 Post Test
3. Socio-cultural And Psychologicial…
3.1 Module Objectives
3.2 Social Theories of Aging
3.3 Psychological Development In Late Life
3.4 Ethno-Cultural Issues And Age-Stratified Societies
3.5 Late-Life Transitions
3.6 Dependent Elders: Special Concerns
3.7 Cultural Views of Death
3.8 References
3.9 Post Test
4. Assessment Of The Geriatric…
4.1 Module Objectives
4.2 Domains of Assessment: Functional Assessment
4.2.1 How to Use Information from a Functional Assessment
4.2.2 Vision Impairment
4.2.3 Hearing Impairment (I)
4.2.4 Hearing Impairment (II)
4.2.5 Oral and Dental Health
4.2.6 Introduction to Oral Health Assessment
4.2.7 Oral Health Assessment
4.2.8 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (I)
4.2.9 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (II)
4.2.10 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Care of Dentures
4.2.11 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Dental Decay
4.2.12 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Periodontal Disease
4.2.13 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Candidiasis Infection
4.2.14 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Leukoplakia and the Risk for Oral Cancer
4.2.15 Guidelines for a Dental Referral
4.2.16 Falls and Gait Assessment
4.2.17 Assessing for Falls
4.2.18 Techniques for Gait Assessment
4.2.19 Gait Assessments and Falls Interventions
4.2.20 Risk Factors for Falls and Targeted Interventions
4.2.21 Modification of Risk Factors: Ability to Get Up After a Fall
4.2.22 Modification of Risk Factors: Fracture Risk
4.2.23 Modification of Risk Factors: Anticoagulation
4.2.24 Incontinence
4.2.25 Skin Breakdown: Pressure Ulcers
4.2.26 Cognition/Dementia
4.2.27 Benefits of Early Detection of Dementia
4.2.28 Screening Techniques for Dementia
4.2.29 Decision-Making about Dementia Screening
4.2.30 Nutrition
4.2.31 Alcohol Use and Alcoholism
4.2.32 Medication and Complementary Therapies
4.2.33 Case Example: Mr. Singh
4.2.34 Mr. Singh--Use of Herbal Medicines
4.2.35 Mr. Singh--Possible Interventions
4.2.36 Mr. Singh--Concerns about Marathon Running at 92?
4.2.37 Mr. Singh--Considerations for Patient/Family Well-Being
4.2.38 Assessing for Polypharmacy (I)
4.2.39 Assessing for Polypharmacy (II)
4.3 Domains Of Assessment: Psychosocial Health And Functioning
4.4 Special Considerations In Assessment
4.5 Post Test
5. Health Care Policies
5.1 Module Objectives
5.2 The Policy-Making Process
5.3 Financing Health & Long Term Care
5.4 Quality Of Care Issues In Long Term Care
5.5 Need And Access Across The Spectrum Of Care
5.6 References
5.7 Post Test
6. Exploring Age-Related Body…
6.1 Cardiovascular System
6.2 Endocrine System
6.3 Immune System
6.4 Musculo-Skeletal System
6.5 Neurological System
6.6 Renal System
6.7 Post Test

Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes

6.5: Neurological System



6.5.16: Incidence of Cognitive Impairment

Why does the incidence of cognitive impairment increase with age?

Changes in neurons, including the alterations that occur in dendritic density, synapses, and neurotransmitters alters the connectivity of the central nervous system while overall cell loss and decreased blood flow and metabolism point to lower reserve capacity. But by themselves, do these necessarily lead to the types of loses seen in dementing conditions?

Here we need to consider additional changes that disrupt cellular function and communication and consider what underlies these changes. A major focus of research has been on neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques, both of which are found extensively in Alzheimer’s disease.

Neurofibrillary tangles are structures that are found within the neuronal cytoplasm and are composed of masses of silver staining fibers, each consisting of a pair of filaments that are wound around each other. (See OUHSC Alzheimer’s Disease—Neurofibrillary Tangles for pictures of various stained tangles—Note: This link will open in a new browser window which you can close to return here.)

While NFT are found it older persons who are not demented - in fact, in some cases the early signs of these tangles can be found in relatively young individuals (Braak, et al., 1999) - they are especially prominent in persons with Alzheimer’s disease and especially in areas such as the hippocampus and amygdala, both of which are involved in memory. These indicate disruption of the intracellular microtubules that are critical for normal neuronal function.

Senile plaques are extraneuronal substances that are composed of degenerating neuronal processes, reactive astrocytes, and amyloid (central core). (See http://www.ahaf.org/alzdis/about/AmyloidPlaques.htm for pictures of senile plaques and their development—Note: This link will open in a new browser window which you can close to return here). Like NFTs, these can be found in persons who are not demented, but are especially prominent in Alzheimer’s disease. Thus, disruption in the normal metabolism of amyloid has been a major focus of research.


Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes
6.5.15 Clinical Implications…
6.5.17 Why Changes in Structure,…