Academic Geriatric Resource Center
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AT A GLANCE

Glossary

0. Introduction
1. Demography And Epidemiology
1.1 The Changing Face of Aging: Objectives
1.2 Local and Regional Variations Among Older Adults in the United States
1.3 Implications of an Aging Society for Health Care Needs and Resources
1.4 Common Chronic Conditions Associated with Advanced Age
1.5 Post Test
2. Biology and Physiology of Aging
2.1 Introduction and Background
2.2 Theories of Aging
2.3 Physiological Changes with Aging
2.3.1 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hyperthermia
2.3.2 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hypothermia
2.3.3 Vulnerability of Older Adults to Hypothermia
2.3.4 Clinical Importance of Vulnerability to Hypothermia
2.3.5 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Other Examples and Clinical Implications
2.3.6 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in Organ Systems
2.3.7 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Renal System
2.3.8 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in Renal System
2.3.9 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.10 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.11 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.12 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.13 Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System
2.3.14 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (I)
2.3.15 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (II)
2.3.16 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
2.3.17 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (I)
2.3.18 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (II)
2.3.19 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.20 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.21 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (I)
2.3.22 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (II)
2.3.23 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System
2.3.24 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System
2.3.25 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (I)
2.3.26 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (II)
2.3.27 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (I)
2.3.28 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (II)
2.3.29 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System
2.3.30 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems
2.3.31 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (I)
2.3.32 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (II)
2.3.33 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.3.34 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.4 Pharmacologic Considerations
2.5 Post Test
3. Socio-cultural And Psychologicial…
3.1 Module Objectives
3.2 Social Theories of Aging
3.3 Psychological Development In Late Life
3.4 Ethno-Cultural Issues And Age-Stratified Societies
3.5 Late-Life Transitions
3.6 Dependent Elders: Special Concerns
3.7 Cultural Views of Death
3.8 References
3.9 Post Test
4. Assessment Of The Geriatric…
4.1 Module Objectives
4.2 Domains of Assessment: Functional Assessment
4.2.1 How to Use Information from a Functional Assessment
4.2.2 Vision Impairment
4.2.3 Hearing Impairment (I)
4.2.4 Hearing Impairment (II)
4.2.5 Oral and Dental Health
4.2.6 Introduction to Oral Health Assessment
4.2.7 Oral Health Assessment
4.2.8 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (I)
4.2.9 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (II)
4.2.10 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Care of Dentures
4.2.11 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Dental Decay
4.2.12 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Periodontal Disease
4.2.13 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Candidiasis Infection
4.2.14 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Leukoplakia and the Risk for Oral Cancer
4.2.15 Guidelines for a Dental Referral
4.2.16 Falls and Gait Assessment
4.2.17 Assessing for Falls
4.2.18 Techniques for Gait Assessment
4.2.19 Gait Assessments and Falls Interventions
4.2.20 Risk Factors for Falls and Targeted Interventions
4.2.21 Modification of Risk Factors: Ability to Get Up After a Fall
4.2.22 Modification of Risk Factors: Fracture Risk
4.2.23 Modification of Risk Factors: Anticoagulation
4.2.24 Incontinence
4.2.25 Skin Breakdown: Pressure Ulcers
4.2.26 Cognition/Dementia
4.2.27 Benefits of Early Detection of Dementia
4.2.28 Screening Techniques for Dementia
4.2.29 Decision-Making about Dementia Screening
4.2.30 Nutrition
4.2.31 Alcohol Use and Alcoholism
4.2.32 Medication and Complementary Therapies
4.2.33 Case Example: Mr. Singh
4.2.34 Mr. Singh--Use of Herbal Medicines
4.2.35 Mr. Singh--Possible Interventions
4.2.36 Mr. Singh--Concerns about Marathon Running at 92?
4.2.37 Mr. Singh--Considerations for Patient/Family Well-Being
4.2.38 Assessing for Polypharmacy (I)
4.2.39 Assessing for Polypharmacy (II)
4.3 Domains Of Assessment: Psychosocial Health And Functioning
4.4 Special Considerations In Assessment
4.5 Post Test
5. Health Care Policies
5.1 Module Objectives
5.2 The Policy-Making Process
5.3 Financing Health & Long Term Care
5.4 Quality Of Care Issues In Long Term Care
5.5 Need And Access Across The Spectrum Of Care
5.6 References
5.7 Post Test
6. Exploring Age-Related Body…
6.1 Cardiovascular System
6.2 Endocrine System
6.3 Immune System
6.4 Musculo-Skeletal System
6.5 Neurological System
6.6 Renal System
6.7 Post Test

Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes

6.3: Immune System



6.3.15: References

Breitbart, E., Wang, X., Leka, L. S., Dallal, G. E., Meydani, S. N., Stollar, B. D. (2002). Altered memory B-cell homeostasis in human aging. Journal of Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 57(8): B304-B311

Burns, E. A. & Goodwin, J. S. (1997) Immunodeficiency of aging. Drugs & Aging, 11(5):374-97.

Butcher, S. K., Chahal, H., Nayak, L., Sinclair, A., Henriquez, N. V., Sapey, E., O’Mahony, D., Lord, J. M. (2001) Senescence in innate immune responses: reduced neutrophil phagocytic capacity and CD16 expression in elderly humans, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 70(6): 881-6.

Doria, G., Frasca, D. (2000). Genetic factors in immunity and aging. Vaccine, 18(16): 1591-5

Fulop, T, Foris, G., Magy, J T, Varga, A, and Leovey, A (1988). The respiratory burst and aging. In A J Sbarra & R R Strauss (eds). The respiratory burst and its physiological significance (pp. 419-435). New York: Plenum Press.

Ginaldi, L., De Martinis, M., Modesti, M., Loreto, F., Corsi, M. P., Quaglino, D. (2000). Immunophenotypical changes of T lymphocytes in the elderly. Gerontology, 46(5): 242-8.

Groer, M. (2001) Pathophsiologic processes in infectious illnesses. In M. Groer (ed) Advanced Pathophysiology: Application to clinical Practice (pp 11-30), Phil: Lippincott.

Hall, K. E. & Wiley, J. W. (1999) Age-associated changes in gastrointestinal function. In, W. R. Hazzard, J. P. Blass, W. H. Ettinger, J. B. Halter, & J. G. Ouslander (eds). Principles of geriatric medicine and gerontology, 4th ed. (pp. 835-842), New York: McGraw Hill.

Isbister, J. P. (1994). Hematopoietic system. In D. A. Noe & R. C. Rock (eds). Laboratory medicine: The selection and interpretation of clinical laboratory studies (pp. 185-235). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., McGuire, L., Robles, T. F., & Glaser, R. (2002). Psychoneuroimmunology and psychosomatic medicine: back to the future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64(1): 15-28.

Kreeger, K, (2003). Inflammation’s infamy, The Scientist, July 14, 28-30

Lloberas, J. & Celada, A. (2002). Effect of aging on macrophage function. Experimental Gerontology, 37: 1323-1329.

Miller, RA (1996). Aging and the immune response, In E L Schneider and J W Rowe (eds) Handbook of the biology of aging, 4rd ed (pp. 355-392), San Diego: Academic Press.

Murasko, D. M., Bernstein, E. D., Gardner, E. M., Gross, P., Munk, G., Dran, S., Abrutyn, E. (2002). Role of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in protection from influenza disease after immunization of healthy elderly, Experimental Gerontology, 37 (2-3): 427-39.

Murasko, D. M., & Bernstein, E. D. (1999). Immunology of aging, In, W. R. Hazzard, J. P. Blass, W. H. Ettinger, J. B. Halter, & J. G. Ouslander (eds). Principles of geriatric medicine and gerontology, 4th ed. (pp. 97-116), New York: McGraw Hill.Pawelec, G., Solana, R., Remarque, E, & Mariani, E. (1999). Impact of aging on innate immunity. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 64 (December): 703-712.

Sandmand, M., Bruunsgaard, H., Kemp, K., Andersen-Ranberg, K., Pederesen, A. N., Skinhoj, P.,& Pedersen, B. K. (2001). Is ageing associated with a shift in the balance between Type 1 and Type 2 cytokines in humans? Clinical Experimental Immunology, 127: 107-114.

Weksler, M. E. (2000). Changes in the B-cell repertoire with age. Vaccine, 18: 1624-1628.


Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes
6.3.14 The Immune Response
6.4 Musculo-Skeletal System