Academic Geriatric Resource Center
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AT A GLANCE

Glossary

0. Introduction
1. Demography And Epidemiology
1.1 The Changing Face of Aging: Objectives
1.2 Local and Regional Variations Among Older Adults in the United States
1.3 Implications of an Aging Society for Health Care Needs and Resources
1.4 Common Chronic Conditions Associated with Advanced Age
1.5 Post Test
2. Biology and Physiology of Aging
2.1 Introduction and Background
2.2 Theories of Aging
2.3 Physiological Changes with Aging
2.3.1 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hyperthermia
2.3.2 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hypothermia
2.3.3 Vulnerability of Older Adults to Hypothermia
2.3.4 Clinical Importance of Vulnerability to Hypothermia
2.3.5 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Other Examples and Clinical Implications
2.3.6 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in Organ Systems
2.3.7 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Renal System
2.3.8 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in Renal System
2.3.9 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.10 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.11 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.12 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.13 Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System
2.3.14 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (I)
2.3.15 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (II)
2.3.16 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
2.3.17 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (I)
2.3.18 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (II)
2.3.19 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.20 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.21 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (I)
2.3.22 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (II)
2.3.23 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System
2.3.24 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System
2.3.25 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (I)
2.3.26 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (II)
2.3.27 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (I)
2.3.28 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (II)
2.3.29 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System
2.3.30 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems
2.3.31 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (I)
2.3.32 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (II)
2.3.33 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.3.34 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.4 Pharmacologic Considerations
2.5 Post Test
3. Socio-cultural And Psychologicial…
3.1 Module Objectives
3.2 Social Theories of Aging
3.3 Psychological Development In Late Life
3.4 Ethno-Cultural Issues And Age-Stratified Societies
3.5 Late-Life Transitions
3.6 Dependent Elders: Special Concerns
3.7 Cultural Views of Death
3.8 References
3.9 Post Test
4. Assessment Of The Geriatric…
4.1 Module Objectives
4.2 Domains of Assessment: Functional Assessment
4.2.1 How to Use Information from a Functional Assessment
4.2.2 Vision Impairment
4.2.3 Hearing Impairment (I)
4.2.4 Hearing Impairment (II)
4.2.5 Oral and Dental Health
4.2.6 Introduction to Oral Health Assessment
4.2.7 Oral Health Assessment
4.2.8 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (I)
4.2.9 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (II)
4.2.10 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Care of Dentures
4.2.11 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Dental Decay
4.2.12 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Periodontal Disease
4.2.13 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Candidiasis Infection
4.2.14 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Leukoplakia and the Risk for Oral Cancer
4.2.15 Guidelines for a Dental Referral
4.2.16 Falls and Gait Assessment
4.2.17 Assessing for Falls
4.2.18 Techniques for Gait Assessment
4.2.19 Gait Assessments and Falls Interventions
4.2.20 Risk Factors for Falls and Targeted Interventions
4.2.21 Modification of Risk Factors: Ability to Get Up After a Fall
4.2.22 Modification of Risk Factors: Fracture Risk
4.2.23 Modification of Risk Factors: Anticoagulation
4.2.24 Incontinence
4.2.25 Skin Breakdown: Pressure Ulcers
4.2.26 Cognition/Dementia
4.2.27 Benefits of Early Detection of Dementia
4.2.28 Screening Techniques for Dementia
4.2.29 Decision-Making about Dementia Screening
4.2.30 Nutrition
4.2.31 Alcohol Use and Alcoholism
4.2.32 Medication and Complementary Therapies
4.2.33 Case Example: Mr. Singh
4.2.34 Mr. Singh--Use of Herbal Medicines
4.2.35 Mr. Singh--Possible Interventions
4.2.36 Mr. Singh--Concerns about Marathon Running at 92?
4.2.37 Mr. Singh--Considerations for Patient/Family Well-Being
4.2.38 Assessing for Polypharmacy (I)
4.2.39 Assessing for Polypharmacy (II)
4.3 Domains Of Assessment: Psychosocial Health And Functioning
4.4 Special Considerations In Assessment
4.5 Post Test
5. Health Care Policies
5.1 Module Objectives
5.2 The Policy-Making Process
5.3 Financing Health & Long Term Care
5.4 Quality Of Care Issues In Long Term Care
5.5 Need And Access Across The Spectrum Of Care
5.6 References
5.7 Post Test
6. Exploring Age-Related Body…
6.1 Cardiovascular System
6.2 Endocrine System
6.3 Immune System
6.4 Musculo-Skeletal System
6.5 Neurological System
6.6 Renal System
6.7 Post Test

Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes

6.1: Cardiovascular System



6.1.21: References

Aronow, W. S. (2001). Commentary on treatment of hypertension in the elderly. Cardiovascular Drugs Therapy 15(3): 281-282.

Badimon, J. J., Fuster, V., Chesebro, J. H., Badimon, L. 1993 Coronary atherosclerosis. A multifactorial disease. Circulation. 87(3 Suppl):II3-16.

Bramstedt, K. A. (2003). Aortic valve replacement in the elderly: Frequently indicated yet frequently denied. Gerontology, 49(1): 46-49.

Fleg, J. L., O’Connor, F., et al. (1995). Impact of age on the cardiovascular response to dynamic upright exercise in healthy men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology, 78(3): 890-900.

Fleg, J. L., Schulman, S., et al. (1994). Effects of acute beta-adrenergic receptor blockade on age-associated changes in cardiovascular performance during dynamic exercise. Circulation, 90(5): 2333-2341.

Jones, P. P., Shapiro, L. F., Keisling, G. A., Jordan, J., Shannon, J.R., Quaife, R. A., & Seals, D. R. (2001). Altered autonomic support of arterial blood pressure with age in healthy men. Circulation, 104: 2424-2429.

Kass, D. A. (2002). Age-related changes in ventricular-Arterial coupling: Pathophysiologic implications. Heart Failure Reviews, 7: 51-62.

Kass, D. A., Shapiro, E. P. et al. (2001). Improved arterial compliance by a novel advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker. Circulation, 104(13): 1464-1470.

Kitzman, D. W. (2002). Diastolic heart failure in the elderly. Heart Failure Reviews, 7: 17-27.

Lakatta, E. G. (2002-2003). Aging and the cardiovascular system. In M. H. Beers & R. Berkew. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics. (Note: This link will open in a new browser window which you can close to return here.)

Lakatta, E. G. & Sollott, S. J. (2002). Perspectives on mammalian cardiovascular aging: Human to molecules. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A. 132: 699-721.

Lakatta, E. G. (2002a). Age-associated cardiovascular changes in health: Implications on cardiovascular disease in older persons. Heart Failure Reviews, 7: 29-49.

Lakatta, E. G. (1999). Circulatory function in younger and older humans in health. In W. R. Hazzard, J. P. Blass, W. H. Ettinger, J. B. Halter, & J. G. Ouslander (eds). Principles of geriatric medicine and gerontology, 4th ed (pp. 645-660), New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lakatta, E. G. (1993). Cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms in advanced age. Physiology Reviews, 73(2): 413-67.

Lakatta, E. G. (1992). Interaction between nutrition and aging: A summary of effects on the cardiovascular system. Nutrition Reviews, 50(12): 419-420.

Lakatta, E. G. (2002b). Introduction: Chronic heart failure in older persons. Heart Failure Reviews, 7: 5-8.

Monahan, K. D., Dinenno, F. A., et al. (2001). Age associated changes in cardiovascular baroreflex sensitivity are related to central arterial compliance. American Journal of Physiology and Heart Circulation Physiology, 281(1): H284-H289.

Moreau, K. L., Donato, A. J., et al. (2003). Regular exercise, hormone replacement therapy, and the age-related decline in carotid arterial compliance in healthy women. Cardiovascular Research, 57(3): 861-868.

Ornish D., Scherwitz L. W., Billings J. H., Brown S. E., Gould K. L., Merritt T. A., Sparler S., Armstrong W. T., Ports T. A., Kirkeeide R. L., Hogeboom C., Brand R. J. (1998). Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA, 280(23): 2001-2007.

Weber, M. A. (2003). Outcomes of treating hypertension in the elderly: A short commentary on current issues. American Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 12(1): 14-18.


Module 6: Exploring Age-Related Body Systems Changes
6.1.20 Case 3: Points To Consider
6.1.22 Review Question 1