Academic Geriatric Resource Center
Increase Font Size

AT A GLANCE

Glossary

0. Introduction
1. Demography And Epidemiology
1.1 The Changing Face of Aging: Objectives
1.2 Local and Regional Variations Among Older Adults in the United States
1.3 Implications of an Aging Society for Health Care Needs and Resources
1.4 Common Chronic Conditions Associated with Advanced Age
1.5 Post Test
2. Biology and Physiology of Aging
2.1 Introduction and Background
2.2 Theories of Aging
2.3 Physiological Changes with Aging
2.3.1 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hyperthermia
2.3.2 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Hypothermia
2.3.3 Vulnerability of Older Adults to Hypothermia
2.3.4 Clinical Importance of Vulnerability to Hypothermia
2.3.5 Loss of Homeostatic Reserve--Other Examples and Clinical Implications
2.3.6 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in Organ Systems
2.3.7 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Renal System
2.3.8 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in Renal System
2.3.9 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.10 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Cardiovascular System
2.3.11 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.12 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Pulmonary System
2.3.13 Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System
2.3.14 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (I)
2.3.15 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Neurologic System (II)
2.3.16 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System
2.3.17 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (I)
2.3.18 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Gastrointestinal System (II)
2.3.19 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.20 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Immune System
2.3.21 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (I)
2.3.22 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System (II)
2.3.23 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Endocrine System
2.3.24 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System
2.3.25 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (I)
2.3.26 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Musculoskeletal System (II)
2.3.27 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (I)
2.3.28 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System (II)
2.3.29 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Genitourinary System
2.3.30 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems
2.3.31 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (I)
2.3.32 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Sensory Systems (II)
2.3.33 Clinically Important Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.3.34 Clinical Significance of Age-Related Changes in the Integument
2.4 Pharmacologic Considerations
2.5 Post Test
3. Socio-cultural And Psychologicial…
3.1 Module Objectives
3.2 Social Theories of Aging
3.3 Psychological Development In Late Life
3.4 Ethno-Cultural Issues And Age-Stratified Societies
3.5 Late-Life Transitions
3.6 Dependent Elders: Special Concerns
3.7 Cultural Views of Death
3.8 References
3.9 Post Test
4. Assessment Of The Geriatric…
4.1 Module Objectives
4.2 Domains of Assessment: Functional Assessment
4.2.1 How to Use Information from a Functional Assessment
4.2.2 Vision Impairment
4.2.3 Hearing Impairment (I)
4.2.4 Hearing Impairment (II)
4.2.5 Oral and Dental Health
4.2.6 Introduction to Oral Health Assessment
4.2.7 Oral Health Assessment
4.2.8 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (I)
4.2.9 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Tooth Loss (II)
4.2.10 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Care of Dentures
4.2.11 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Dental Decay
4.2.12 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Periodontal Disease
4.2.13 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Candidiasis Infection
4.2.14 Common Oral Conditions in Older Adults: Leukoplakia and the Risk for Oral Cancer
4.2.15 Guidelines for a Dental Referral
4.2.16 Falls and Gait Assessment
4.2.17 Assessing for Falls
4.2.18 Techniques for Gait Assessment
4.2.19 Gait Assessments and Falls Interventions
4.2.20 Risk Factors for Falls and Targeted Interventions
4.2.21 Modification of Risk Factors: Ability to Get Up After a Fall
4.2.22 Modification of Risk Factors: Fracture Risk
4.2.23 Modification of Risk Factors: Anticoagulation
4.2.24 Incontinence
4.2.25 Skin Breakdown: Pressure Ulcers
4.2.26 Cognition/Dementia
4.2.27 Benefits of Early Detection of Dementia
4.2.28 Screening Techniques for Dementia
4.2.29 Decision-Making about Dementia Screening
4.2.30 Nutrition
4.2.31 Alcohol Use and Alcoholism
4.2.32 Medication and Complementary Therapies
4.2.33 Case Example: Mr. Singh
4.2.34 Mr. Singh--Use of Herbal Medicines
4.2.35 Mr. Singh--Possible Interventions
4.2.36 Mr. Singh--Concerns about Marathon Running at 92?
4.2.37 Mr. Singh--Considerations for Patient/Family Well-Being
4.2.38 Assessing for Polypharmacy (I)
4.2.39 Assessing for Polypharmacy (II)
4.3 Domains Of Assessment: Psychosocial Health And Functioning
4.4 Special Considerations In Assessment
4.5 Post Test
5. Health Care Policies
5.1 Module Objectives
5.2 The Policy-Making Process
5.3 Financing Health & Long Term Care
5.4 Quality Of Care Issues In Long Term Care
5.5 Need And Access Across The Spectrum Of Care
5.6 References
5.7 Post Test
6. Exploring Age-Related Body…
6.1 Cardiovascular System
6.2 Endocrine System
6.3 Immune System
6.4 Musculo-Skeletal System
6.5 Neurological System
6.6 Renal System
6.7 Post Test

Module 3: Socio-cultural And Psychologicial Aspects of Aging

3.8: References


Abel, E. K. (1991).  Who cares for the elderly?  Public policy and the experiences of adult daughters.  Philadelphia:  Temple University Press.

Amoss, P., & Harrel, S. (Eds. (1981).  Other ways of growing old:  Anthropological perspectives.  Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Baltes, P. B. (1979).  Life-span development psychology:  Some converging observations on history and theory.  In P. B. Baltes & O. G. Brim, Jr. (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 2).  New York:  Academic Press.

Barker, J. C. (1997). Between humans and ghosts:  The decrepit elderly on a Polynesian island.  In J.Sokolovsky (Ed.), The cultural context of aging:  Worldwide perspectives (Revised 2nd ed., pp. 407-424).  New York:  Bergin & Garvey.

Barker, J. C. (2002).  Neighbors, friends and other non-kin caregivers of community-living dependent elders.  Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57B, S158-S167.

Barker, J. C., & Kramer, B. J. (1996). Alcohol consumption among older urban American Indians.  Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57, 119-124.

Becker, G. (2002). Dying away from home: Quandaries of migration for elders in two ethnic groups.  Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57B, S79-S96.

Bengtson, V. L. & Schaie, K. W. (Eds.).  (1999).  Handbook of theories of aging.  New York:  Springer.

Berger, R. M.  (1996).  Gay and gray: The older homosexual man (2nd ed.).  New York: Harrington Park Press.

Bhopal, R.S. (1998).  Spectre of racism in health and health care: lessons from history and the United States. British Medical Journal, 316,1970-1973.

Burgess, E. W. (Ed.). (1960).  Aging in western societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Butler, R. N. (1963).  The life review:  An interpretation of reminiscence in the aged.  Psychiatry, 26, 65-76.

Butler, R. N. (1975). Why survive?  Being old in America. New York: Harper & Row.

Butler, R. N., Lewis, M. I., & Sunderland, T.  (1998). Aging and mental health (5th ed.).  Boston:  Allyn and Bacon.

Cancian , F. M. & Oliker, S. J. (2000).  Caring and gender.  Walnut Creek, CA; Rowan & Littlefield.

Chiriboga, D. (1987).  Personality in later life.  In P. Silverman (Ed.), The elderly as modern pioneers (pp. 133-157). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Clark, M. M. & Anderrson, B. (1967).  Culture and aging:  An anthropological study of older Americans.  Springfield, Ill: Chas. C. Thomas.

Cole, T. R., Achenbaum, W. A., Jakobi, P. L.,  & Kastenbaum, R. (Eds.). (1993).  Voices and visions of aging: Toward a critical gerontology.  New York: Springer.

Cowgill, D. & Holmes, L. D. (1972).  Aging and modernization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Crews, D. E., & Bindon, J. R. (1991).  Ethnicity as a taxonomic tool in biomedical and biosocial research. Ethnicity and Disease, 1, 42-49.

Cumming, E., & Henry, W.  (1961).  Growing old:  The process of disengagement. New York: Basic Books.

Diamond, T. (1992). Making gray gold. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

DiSorbo, A. (1995, Fall-Winter). Equity: liberty and justice for all?  Harvard Journal of Minority Public Health, 16-19.

Eckert, J. K. (1980).  The unseen elderly: A study of marginally subsistent hotel dwellers.  San Diego: Campanile Press.

Erikson, E. H. (1963).  Childhood and society (2nd ed.).  New York:  Norton.

Erikson, E. H. (1984).  Reflections on the last stage—and the first.  Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 39, 155-165.

Ferraro, K. F.  (1987). Double jeopardy to health for Black older adults?  Journal of Gerontology, 42, 528-533.

Foner, N. (1994). The caregiving dilemma. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Geiger, J. H. (1996). Race and health care—an American dilemma. New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 815-816.

Glascock, A. P. (1997).  When killing is acceptable: The moral dilemma surrounding assisted suicide in America and other societies.  In J. Sokolovsky (Ed.), The cultural context of aging:  Worldwide perspectives (Revised 2nd ed., pp. 56-70). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Gubrium, J. F. (1975). Living and dying at Murray Manor. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Hahn, R. A. (1992). The state of federal health statistics on racial and ethnic groups.  Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 267, 268-271.

Herskovits, E. J. (1995).  Struggling over subjectivity: Debates about the "self" and Alzheimer’s disease.  Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 9, 146-164.

Herskovits, E. J. & Mitteness, L. S. (1994).  Transgressions and sickness in old age. Journal of Aging Studies, 8, 327-340.

Holmes, E. R. & Holmes, L. D. (1995).  Other cultures, elder years (2nd ed.).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers.

Hochschild, A. (1973). The unexpected community. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Iris, M. A. (1988). Guardianship and the elderly: A multi-perspective view of the decision-making process. The Gerontologist, 28, 39-45.

Johnson, S. K. (1971).  Idle haven: Community building among the working-class retired

Berkeley, CA; University of California Press.

Kayser-Jones, J. S.  (1981). Old, alone and neglected:  Care of the aged in Scotland and the U. S.  Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Kehoe, M. (1989). Lesbians over 60 speak for themselves. New York: Haworth Press.

Keith, J., Fry, C. L., Glascock, A., Ikels, C., Dickerson-Putman, J., Harpending, H.C. &  Draper, P.  (1994).  The aging experience: Diversity and commonality across cultures.  Thousand Oaks, CA; Sage Publishers.

Keith, P. M. & Wacker, R. R. (1994). Older wards and their guardians. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kelly, J.J.  (1977). The aging male homosexual: Myth and reality.  The Gerontologist, 17, 328-332.

Kelly, J. J. (1980).  Homosexuality and aging.  In J. Marmour (Ed.), Homosexual behavior: A Modern Reappraisal, pp. 176-193.  New York: Basic Books.

Kertzer, D. I., & Keith, J. (1984).  Age and anthropological theory.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Kramer, B. J., & Barker, J. C.  (1994). Ethnicity in the elderly. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 9, 403-417.

Morgan, D. L. (Ed.). (1998, Spring).  The Baby Boom at midlife and beyond.  [Special issue]. Generations.

Myerhoff,  B. (1984).  Rites and signs of ripening: The intertwining of ritual, time, and growing older.  In D. I. Kertzer & J. Keith (Eds.), Age and anthropological Theory (pp.305-330). Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

National Urban League. (1964). Double jeopardy: The older Negro in America today.  New York: National Urban League.

Quinn, M. J., & Tomita, S. K. (1986). Elder abuse and neglect: Causes, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. New York: Springer.

Rosow, I. (1974).  Socialization to old age.  New York: Free Press.

Rosow, I. (1976).  Status and role change through the life span. In R. H. Binstock & E. Shanas (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the social sciences (pp. 457-482). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.

Rowe, J. L., & Kahn, R. L. (1998).  Successful Aging.  New York:  Pantheon Press.

Savishinsky, J. S. (1991).  The ends of time: Life and work an a nursing home.  New York: Bergin & Garvey.

Schaie, K. W. (1996).  Intellectual development in adulthood.  In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (4th ed., pp. 266-286).  San Diego:  Academic Press.

Scheibel, A. B.  (1996). Structural and functional changes in the aging brain.  In J. E. Birren & K. W. Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the Psychology of Aging (4th ed., pp.105-128).  San Diego:  Academic Press.

Shanas, E., Townsend, P., Wedderburn, D., Friis, H., Milhoj, P. &  Stehouwer, J.

(1968). Old people in three industrial societies. New York: Atherton Press.

Shields, R.R. (1988).  Uneasy endings: Daily life in an American nursing home.  Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Silverman, P. (Ed.).  (1987).  The elderly as modern pioneers. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Simmons, L. (1945).  The role of the aged in primitive society.  New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Sokolovsky, J. (Ed.). (1997). The cultural context of aging: Worldwide perspectives (Revised 2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Stephens, J. (1976). Loners, losers, and lovers: Elderly tenants in a slum hotel.  Seattle:

University of Washington Press.

Tanjasiri, S.P., Wallace, S. P.,  & Shibata, K. (1995). Picture imperfect: Hidden problems among Asian Pacific Islander elderly. The Gerontologist, 35, 753-760.

Thomson, G.E. (1997). Discrimination in health care. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126, 910-911.

Turner, B. F., & Troll, L. E. Eds.).  (1994).  Women growing older: Psychological perspectives.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  (1999). Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Mental Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health.

Uehara, E. S., Takeuchi, D.T., & Smukler, M. (1994).  Effects of combining disparate groups in the analysis of ethnic differences: Variations among Asian American mental health service consumers in level of community functioning. American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 83-99.

Vesperi, M. D. (1985).  City of green benches: Growing old in a new downtown. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Wade, N. (2002, July 30).  Race is seen as real guide to trace roots of disease. New York Times.

Williams, D. R.  (1990).  Socioeconomic differentials in health: A review and redirection. Social Psychology Quarterly, 53(2), 81-89.

Williams, D. R. (Ed.). (1999). Racism and health. [Special issue.]. Ethnicity and Disease, 5.

Williams, D. R., & Collins, C. (1995). U. S. socioeconomic and racial differences in health: patterns and explanations.  Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 349-386.

Zinny, G.H., & Grossberg, G. T.  (1998). Guardianship of the elderly: Psychiatric and judicial aspects. New York: Springer.

 


Module 3: Socio-cultural And Psychologicial Aspects of Aging
3.7.3 End of Life Care
3.9 Post Test